Abstract

Innovation has been one of the most extensively studied variables in Strategic Management research. However, there is still no consensus on the conceptualization and measurement of innovation. In fact, innovation is measured using various indicators reaching from R&D intensity to the percentage of sales derived from new products. Based on the knowledge that innovation indicators have their strengths and weaknesses researchers frequently apply more than one measure, often without justification. It is not clear, however, whether these indicators describe a uni- or multi-dimensional construct or if they are even unrelated and, thus, a collection of multiple constructs. Innovation literature distinguishes three types of indicators: input-, throughput-, and output-related measures. In order to reveal whether these dimensions of the innovation construct exist and which measures belong to each of the dimensions we conduct a meta-analysis on the relationship between different innovation indicators.

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