Abstract

During the last decades, a research focus was on characteristics of effective visions and goals, that is, of visions and goals that are related to business success (Baum et al., 1998; Locke & Latham, 2002). Many scholars assumed that visions and goals are effective if organizational cultures are in alignment with their characteristics (e.g., Locke et al., 1991). However, we are not aware that any scholars conducted studies to test their assumptions. We made the assumption that visions and goals are effective if entrepreneurs promote organizational cultures that align with their characteristics. The promotion of organizational cultures is driven by entrepreneurs’ cultural orientations, which are manifested in the practices entrepreneurs apply in their businesses (König et al., 2007; Schein, 1987). We hypothesized that seven cultural orientations (uncertainty avoidance, power distance, collectivism, assertiveness, future orientation, humane orientation, and performance orientation) moderate the relationships of seven vision characteristics (clarity, challenge, future-orientation, stability, desirability, social responsibility, and growth orientation) and seven goal characteristics (specificity, difficulty, long-term orientation, prevention focus, collective orientation, social responsibility, and growth orientation) to business success.

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