Abstract

This study tests hypotheses about the relationships between expected and acquired funding sources, founder and firm characteristics, and success at starting a business. We devise a rationale for categorizing emerging startup efforts based on an entrepreneur’s expectations of using two broad kinds of financial resources: unmonitored and monitored. Examples of unmonitored sources of funds would be: a 2nd mortgage, credit cards, spouses, friends, and family. Unmonitored funds are provided to entrepreneurs with little ongoing overview of the business plan or operations. Monitored sources of funding include: loans from a bank, finance company, current employer, the Small Business Administration, and venture capital. Monitored funds are provided after a thorough and ongoing overview of the business plan and operations. We control for firm characteristics such as industry, business legal form, expected growth rate, expected size; and individual characteristics such as: education, industry experience, age, gender, and income.

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