Empirical research on the effectiveness of planned/causal and emergent/effectual approaches to entrepreneurship has provided mixed and contradictory results. One possible reason is that although business plans are generally associated with a planned/causal approach, they also contain indicators of effectual approaches. Along that line, this paper contributes to the ongoing debate by comparing the written business plans of micro-firms and small firms on indicators of effectuation and causation.
Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Ratinho, Tiago; and Groen, Aard
"PLANNING EFFECTUAL GROWTH: A STUDY OF EFFECTUATION AND CAUSATION IN BUSINESS PLANS (SUMMARY),"
Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research: Vol. 31
, Article 15.
Available at: http://digitalknowledge.babson.edu/fer/vol31/iss4/15