Abstract

This study examined how contingencies operating at multiple levels combine to influence the relationship between personal initiative and job performance. Analyses of multisource and multilevel data collected from 383 middle managers operating in 34 business units indicated that individual autonomy strengthened the relationship between personal initiative and performance whereas individual risk-taking propensity weakened the focal link. For managers with high risk-taking propensities, the relationship between personal initiative and performance was positive when their unit’s performance management context was strong but negative when it was weak. Consideration of person-organization fit may thus help to better understand when personal initiative enhances or limits managerial performance.

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