Explanations for the extensive variation in rates of entrepreneurship across countries and gender have been biased by the dominant paradigms of the field, the limits of the resulting research designs, and ultimately by the lack of comprehensive framework for predicting and understanding the decision to start a business. I propose an alternative view of entrepreneurship based soundly on contemporary social theory, in particular on Bourdieu’s Theory of Practice. The resulting theoretical model presents a set of theoretical propositions and hypotheses that fit well with existing evidence from the field entrepreneurship and other studies of gender and work.