More than a century of foundings in a rural, peripheral, minority language (Irish / Gaelic) region in the west of Ireland is examined, from a pre-industrial stage to its current partly-industrialised and increasingly service-based stage. A database of 2,700 records of state-supported individuals and organisations from 1891 to 2003 is analysed to track the emergence of entrepreneurship. Results reveal the importance of institutional, infrastructural and social factors and suggest that entrepreneurship rooted in the local communities has persisted longer.