The nature and role of entrepreneurship in for-profit companies is fairly well-established. Empirically, the firm’s entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has been associated with various measures of performance, as well as with a number of antecedent variables. In addition, evidence exists of a relationship between EO and the market orientation (MO) of for-profit firms. At the same time, research on the nature and role of entrepreneurship in general, and EO in particular, within non-profit organizations (NPOs) remains limited. At the most basic level, the theoretical basis for entrepreneurship in a non-profit has not been adequately established. Operationally, the forms that entrepreneurship can take, and the implications of different levels of entrepreneurship are unclear in a non-profit context. The purpose of the current study was to explore the extent to which relationships identified in for-profit company research are applicable in a non-profit context. EO is measured and associated with a number of antecedent variables, as well as market orientation and performance.