Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) has become a key construct in the entrepreneurship literature. While most researchers have utilized the scale items developed by Covin and Slevin (1989) to measure EO, there has been much debate regarding the dimensionality of the EO construct and the interdependence among the sub-dimensions. This has resulted in different measurement models being used to test hypotheses involving EO. However, these different models represent significantly different theoretical representations of the EO construct.

This paper examines three different measurement models of the EO construct and describes the theoretical implications of each model. These models will include a formative-reflective model, a reflective-reflective model, and a multiplicative, or synergistic, model.

In addition to the theoretical discussion, an empirical analysis is conducted in order to examine how a model misspecification may affect the empirical results and conclusions of studies utilizing the EO construct.