In recent years, scholarly interest in international new ventures or born global firms has risen, shaping up a distinguishable research agenda in the field of Entrepreneurship. However, empirical studies have mainly examined data on technology-based new firms. There is still a dearth of evidence on a broader range of international new ventures. Positioned at the intersection of International Business and Entrepreneurship, the research agenda in International Entrepreneurship has offered a novel theoretical base for the study of early and accelerated internationalization (Oviatt and McDougall, 2005). Further, it has led to a more balanced view on the actors of internationalization, adding new and small firms to the traditional focus on MNEs.

This research area is now coming of age, with a number of scholars taking stock of its past and future directions (Zahra and George, 2000; Rialp et al, 2002; Oviatt and McDougall, 2005). Over the years, scholars have proposed different taxonomies of international new ventures (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994; Servais and Rasmussen, 2000; Knight and Cavusgil, 2005) and different paths of entrepreneurs in their global expansion (Kuemmerle, 2005). They have added to the born global phenomena extensions such as the “born again global” firms (Bell et al, 2003).

While theoretical understanding of the phenomena of new firms internationalizing from inception has increased over the past two decades, the empirical work on them is still insufficient. There is a need for exploration of international entrepreneurship in different starting contexts and, beyond the traditional focus on high technological firms, in a wider range of internationalizing start-ups.