Understanding how individuals identify and exploit business opportunities is fundamental to entrepreneurship research (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000). This paper adds to the growing literature that studies criteria used by individuals to evaluate opportunities (cf. Shepherd and Zacharakis, 2002; Baron and Ensley, 2006). Specifically, we ask: “Do Entrepreneurs in Europe and the United States Systematically Differ in Their Assessment of Business Opportunities?” An improved understanding of this question will help researchers not only in explaining different patterns of opportunity exploitation in the United States and in Europe, but will also help to develop a more contextualized understanding of the opportunity evaluation process.