This research suggests that human resource management (HRM) represents an important, overlooked moderating influence upon a firm’s ability to maximize the effectiveness of its EO. Two elements of HRM are investigated being the development of high performance work systems (HPWS) and a strong employee partnership philosophy. Addressing the recent call for research exploring questions at the intersection of entrepreneurship and HRM (Baron, 2004; Katz, Aldrich, Welbourne, & Williams, 2000), this research explores whether the preceding HRM elements enable new ventures to attain greater performance through their EO efforts.