North American Indigenous groups and communities vary greatly in terms of willingness, readiness and approaches for entrepreneurship and economic development in the global economy (Wuttunee, 2004 & 2007; Cornell and Kalt, 1992 & 2003; Adamson and King, 2002; Peredo et al 2004; Anderson et al, 2007). This case study examined Indigenous perspectives of sustainable entrepreneurship and economic development in relation to the proposed $16.2 billion 12,220-km Mackenzie Gas Pipeline which would connect the Mackenzie Delta to the Alberta Tar Sands. The route would cross traditional lands of four Northwest Territories (NWT) Indigenous groups: Inuvialuit, Gwich’in, Sahtu Dene & Deh Cho. Three had achieved self-government with ownership of lands and resources and funds for economic development; but with this came responsibility to protect the sustainability of their lands, resources, people, communities and environment. The fourth group was negotiating a land claim with the Canadian government.