Drawing on institutional theory, this study examines entrepreneurial attitudes and early stage entrepreneurial activities within American Indian nations. Early stage entrepreneurial activity is particularly critical as more American Indian tribes gain enhanced legitimacy as sovereign nations engaged in nation-building processes (Cornell & Kalt, 2007). A growing number of these nations recognize the need to encourage and facilitate private economic development among their members. This study examines entrepreneurial attitudes, aspirations, and early stage entrepreneurial activity within American Indian nations.