Various studies have examined motivations for starting family versus non-family businesses. Most of these studies focus on opportunity-based entrepreneurs in developed countries. This exploratory research examines gender differences in the personal values of nascent necessity based entrepreneurs in a developing country.

We examine values because they are higher-order social cognitions that are representations of social interaction requirements of the individual. In line with previous research that has shown differences in entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors by gender, we look at gender values differences. Our research question is, “Are there gender differences in nascent necessity entrepreneur values and how do these vary between family and non-family businesses?”