This paper analyzes the factors that affect Entrepreneurial Orientation in Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Our aim is to contribute to the literature on SMEs entrepreneurship by extending our understanding of the effect of the top manager-entrepreneur’s personality and of the organizational structure features on EO. In doing so, we bring a few elements of response to Miller’s (2011:12) question: “When and how do structural routines and standard procedures actually foster EO?”. Our focus on the context of SMEs reflects the challenge offered by Carsrud & Brännback (2011:20) who note that little research has addressed the question of how factors such as selfefficacy and expected outcome interact with contextual factors to impact SMEs entrepreneurial behaviors.

Following in Miller’s footsteps, we set the entrepreneurship variable as dependent variable. We propose a model with the following independent variables: need for achievement (McClelland, 1961), entrepreneurial self – efficacy (Forbes, 2005), a variable that measures the extent to which a company has a mechanistic structure (Burns & Stalker, 1961), and company size and age (i.e. Stevenson & Jarrillo-Mossi, 1986).