This paper considers the impact of shortfalls of human capital, as reported by managers, on longrun performance and survival. While the importance of the entrepreneur’s human capital has been widely discussed in the literature (Bates 1990; Gimeno et al 1997; Davidsson and Honig 2003), there has been much less attention has been paid to other, non-entrepreneur human capital in firms. This is important because entepreneurs’ ability to recruit human capital is key for a firm to grow (Leung 2003; Leung et al 2006). If entrepreneurs are not able to access key staff, this may require changes in strategy and may impede a firm’s long-term growth prospects. This paper explores the ability of firms to leverage the general and specific human capital among managers and employees in the company to generate growth (in line with Hitt et al 2001).