Recent years have seen a growing body of studies about institutional entrepreneurship in management and entrepreneurship journals. As highlighted by DiMaggio’s (1988) seminal definition, institutional entrepreneurs are actors with sufficient resources, who create new institutions or transform existing institutions that favor their interest. Despite this centrality of resources, prior literature has not thoroughly explored the strategic implications of resources (Levy & Scully, 2007), being “vague as to what is meant by ‘resources’ as well as what is done with them” (Hardy & Maguire, 2008, p. 207). To address this gap, we conduct a systematic review of the institutional entrepreneurship literature and develop a resource-based process model of institutional entrepreneurship.