Effectuation and causation have been described in the literature as occurring sequentially or simultaneously, but little research has examined when and under what conditions this occurs. We examine the co-existence of effectuation and causation based on 25 long interviews of executives working with innovation in the magazine industry. We find three patterns of co-existence, including simultaneous, sequential and situational dependence uses of effectuation and causation. Implications for future studies of effectuation, especially in regards to the corporate context, are discussed.