In 1980, Congress passed the Bayh-Dole Act (P.L. 96-517) which allowed universities to obtain title to inventions created with government funded research and established technology transfer offices (TTOs) to manage the process of patenting and licensing these inventions. Although there is much research about TTOs, there are no comprehensive studies that look at key attributes of TTOs, and how and to what extent these attributes relate to different performance outcomes. Further, much TTO research does not rely on theory to explain why key TTO attributes relate to performance. We leverage resource-based theory (Barney, 1991) to describe why key TTO attributes might be related to performance. The theory asserts that when organizations possess resources that are valuable, rare, and hard to imitate, higher performance can result.