Abstract

A significant factor in adaptation to a new culture for the possession of cross-cultural capabilities (CCCs), which are composed of psychological adaptation and sociocultural adaptation. The age of arrival in the host country has been found to influence the first generation immigrants’ CCCs (Johnson & Newport, 1989). Sociologists refer to the “1.5 generation,” which denotes people who immigrate to a new country at age 6 to 12 and are often bilingual. For them, it is easier to assimilate into the host culture than people who migrated in adulthood. Those who arrived in their adolescent years from age 13 to 17 are called “1.25 generation” and tend to adapt to the host country similarly to the “1.0 generation” (arrive after 18) (Rumbaut, 1997, Rumbaut, 2004, Zhou, 1997). This paper examines the differences among these three entrepreneurs to address the research question “how does it differentiate among three groups of first generation immigrant entrepreneurs in terms of their CCCs?”

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