Abstract

Fear of failure (FoF) is the top reason for people to not go into business (Bosma et al., 2007; Henderson & Robertson, 1999). The current options for examining FoF is either the single-item used in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), or the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory (PFAI), which represents multidimensional concerns of general failure. The PFAI was developed from interviews with American athletes and performing artists, so the perceived consequences of failure may differ from business failure. Due to the gap in the current literature, our goal is to develop a valid measure of entrepreneurial fear of failure.

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