Abstract

Scholars have described entrepreneurship as ‘leadership in a special context’ (Cogliser & Brigham, 2009; Gupta & Fernandez, 2009; Vecchio, 2003) - a context characterized by the recognition and pursuit of new opportunities to introduce goods and services (Eckardt & Shane, 2003). Broadly speaking, prior research offers two generalized explanations to understand occupational sextyping of entrepreneurship: an essentialist perspective associated with evolutionary psychology theory (EPT) and a constructionist perspective from social role theory (SRT). Cross-cultural studies examining consistency or variability across societies are particularly useful for establishing the plausibility of one theoretical perspective over the other (Costa, Terracciano, & McCrae, 2001; Lippa, 2009). As Lippa (2010: 620) argued, to the extent that there is strong consistency- perhaps, even universality- across cultures, it is likely that biological factors are dominant, but to the extent that there is wide variability across cultures, the likelihood increases that systematic cultural processes are regnant.

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