Scholars have described entrepreneurship as ‘leadership in a special context’ (Cogliser & Brigham, 2009; Gupta & Fernandez, 2009; Vecchio, 2003) - a context characterized by the recognition and pursuit of new opportunities to introduce goods and services (Eckardt & Shane, 2003). Broadly speaking, prior research offers two generalized explanations to understand occupational sextyping of entrepreneurship: an essentialist perspective associated with evolutionary psychology theory (EPT) and a constructionist perspective from social role theory (SRT). Cross-cultural studies examining consistency or variability across societies are particularly useful for establishing the plausibility of one theoretical perspective over the other (Costa, Terracciano, & McCrae, 2001; Lippa, 2009). As Lippa (2010: 620) argued, to the extent that there is strong consistency- perhaps, even universality- across cultures, it is likely that biological factors are dominant, but to the extent that there is wide variability across cultures, the likelihood increases that systematic cultural processes are regnant.
Gupta, Vishal K.; Batra, Safal; and Gupta, Alka
"SEX-TYPING OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP: EVOLUTIONARY OR SOCIAL FORCES? A TALE OF TWO THEORIES (SUMMARY),"
Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research: Vol. 36
, Article 2.
Available at: https://digitalknowledge.babson.edu/fer/vol36/iss7/2